[sf-lug] how to whack crackers

toya toya at linefeed.org
Mon Jan 5 18:17:25 PST 2009

A good tool for backup is 'backupninja' there is a package for debian and
probably for ubuntu. 

Em Mon, Jan 05, 2009 at 05:52:26PM -0800, Rick Moen escreveu:
> Quoting Asheesh Laroia (asheesh at asheesh.org):
> > On Mon, 5 Jan 2009, jim wrote:
> > 
> > >   i cannot figure out a good backup scheme. the one
> > > that copies absolutely everything from certain
> > > directories each night is inelegant.
> > 
> > I disagree; it's magically elegant. Back up the whole filesystem, and then 
> > you know that if you lose that filesystem tomorrow you have a copy of it 
> > for later. On this point I think Rick and I disagree, but to me, the 
> > confidence I get knowing I have the entire filesystem backed up means that 
> > I don't ever have to worry about my backups excluding a file I wanted, nor 
> > about spending time configuring the backups.  Disks are cheap, and Asheesh 
> > worrying is expensive.
> Whatever works, really.
> I happen to have put in a lot of time getting to know what's on my
> system and where everything lives.  Fortunately, Linux systems cooperate
> by being very, very consistent about where things go.  The complete list
> happens to be, in my server's case:
> /root/*                      Root user's home directory
> /etc/*                       System configuration files
> /usr/lib/cgi-bin/*           CGI scripts (omit PHP binaries)
> /var/lib/mysql/*             MySQL database files 
> /boot/grub/menu.lst          GRUB bootloader configuration (just 1 file)
> /var/spool/exim4/*           Exim and SA-Exim internal files
> /var/spool/news/*            NNTP news spool for Leafnode
> /var/spool/mail/*            SMTP mail spool
> /var/lib/mailman/archives/*  Mailing list archives for Mailman
> /var/lib/mailman/data/*      Mailing list state and other data
> /var/lib/mailman/lists/*     Mailing list definitions for Mailman
> /var/lib/mailman/nntp/*      Mailing list NNTP gateway data
> /var/lib/mailman/qfiles/*    Mailing list in-process data
> /usr/local/*                 Locally installed files and records
> /var/www/*                   Public http, ftp, rsync tree
> /home/*                      Non-root users' home trees
> Plus, export (to a file in /root) of the package database contents 
>    dpkg --get-selections "*" > /root/selections-$(date +%F)
> ...and partition maps of the two hard drives:
>    disk -l /dev/sda > /root/partitions-sda-$(date +%F)  Partition map of sda
>    fdisk -l /dev/sdb > /root/partitions-sdb-$(date +%F)  Partition map of sdb
> ...and a dated snapshot of the all-important /etc tree
>    tar cvzf /root/etc-$(date +%F).tar.gz /etc
> That's literally everything that cannot be reconstructed (and updated at
> the same time) from trusted Debian package contents -- and is a great
> deal smaller, quicker to copy, etc.  Important when you backup to
> offsite over a congested aDSL link, for example.
> Along the lines of "whatever works", if re-copying to backup media the
> same basically irrelevant and seldom-changing files in /usr/bin,
> /usr/lib, /usr/share, etc., isn't a problem, great.  If the extra time
> and room makes it marginal whether you'd bother doing backups at all,
> then that's important.
> The way you know that you've gotten everything is using the only test
> that ever matters for _any_ backup, "whole filesystem" or not:  See if
> you can restore a functional machine using it, starting from bare metal.
> > Okay, so it's for cleanliness, not security? Then use fail2ban to tidy 
> > that up.
> If thy logging offend thee, _reduce_ it.  Or, better yet, just ignore what
> doesn't matter.
> Dunno if this explanation applies, here, but often I see people
> scrambling for things like "fail2ban" because they've just installed a
> log-analysis tool like logcheck, and are all hot and bothered by the
> e-mailed reports, which suggest menacingly that things like dictionary
> attacks against sshd are serious threats.  Those people (of whom I
> speak) then install blocking software, iptables rules, etc., _solely_ 
> to make logcheck's menacing e-mails go away.
> The smarter approach is, of course, to just edit logcheck's
> configuration to make it cease doing a Chicken Little impression every
> time someone rattles the doorknob.
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