[conspire] fyi: Understanding the bin, sbin, usr/bin , usr/sbin split
Jeff.Hodges at KingsMountain.com
Thu Feb 2 09:42:46 PST 2012
some of you folks probably already saw this, and many probably have been around
long enough to experience how increasing capacity of all forms (cpu cycles,
RAM, disk, bus bandwidth, etc) have outstripped early assumptions and
workarounds, but I found it interesting (hadn't heard this particular story
before, but have used RK05 disks) and will post here just in case others find
Understanding the bin, sbin, usr/bin , usr/sbin split
Rob Landley rob at landley.net
Thu Dec 9 15:45:39 UTC 2010
On Tuesday 30 November 2010 15:58:00 David Collier wrote:
> I see that busybox spreads it's links over these 4 directories.
> Is there a simple rule which decides which directory each link
> lives in.....
> For instance I see kill is in /bin and killall in /usr/bin....
> I don't have a grip on what might be the logic for that.
You know how Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie created Unix on a
PDP-7 in 1969? Well around 1971 they upgraded to a PDP-11 with
a pair of RK05 disk packs (1.5 megabytes each) for storage.
When the operating system grew too big to fit on the first RK05
disk pack (their root filesystem) they let it leak into the
second one, which is where all the user home directories lived
(which is why the mount was called /usr). They replicated all
the OS directories under there (/bin, /sbin, /lib, /tmp...) and
wrote files to those new directories because their original disk
was out of space. When they got a third disk, they mounted it
on /home and relocated all the user directories to there so the
OS could consume all the space on both disks and grow to THREE
WHOLE MEGABYTES (ooooh!).
Of course they made rules about "when the system first boots, it
has to come up enough to be able to mount the second disk on
/usr, so don't put things like the mount command /usr/bin or
we'll have a chicken and egg problem bringing the system up."
Fairly straightforward. Also fairly specific to v6 unix of 35
The /bin vs /usr/bin split (and all the others) is an artifact of
this, a 1970's implementation detail that got carried forward
for decades by bureaucrats who never question _why_ they're
doing things. It stopped making any sense before Linux was ever
invented, for multiple reasons:
1) Early system bringup is the provice of initrd and initramfs,
which deals with the "this file is needed before that file"
issues. We've already _got_ a temporary system that boots the
2) shared libraries (introduced by the Berkeley guys) prevent you
from independently upgrading the /lib and /usr/bin parts. They
two partitions have to _match_ or they won't work. This wasn't
the case in 1974, back then they had a certain level of
independence because everything was statically linked.
3) Cheap retail hard drives passed the 100 megabyte mark around
1990, and partition resizing software showed up somewhere around
there (partition magic 3.0 shipped in 1997).
Of course once the split existed, some people made other rules to
justify it. Root was for the OS stuff you got from upstream and
/usr was for your site- local files. Then / was for the stuff
you got from AT&T and /usr was for the stuff that your distro
like IBM AIX or Dec Ultrix or SGI Irix added to it, and
/usr/local was for your specific installation's files. Then
somebody decided /usr/local wasn't a good place to install new
packages, so let's add /opt! I'm still waiting for /opt/local
to show up...
Of course given 30 years to fester, this split made some
interesting distro- specific rules show up and go away again,
such as "/tmp is cleared between reboots but /usr/tmp isn't".
(Of course on Ubuntu /usr/tmp doesn't exist and on Gentoo
/usr/tmp is a symlink to /var/tmp which now has the "not cleared
between reboots" rule. Yes all this predated tmpfs. It has to
do with read- only root filesystems, /usr is always going to be
read only in that case and /var is where your writable space is,
/ is _mostly_ read only except for bits of /etc which they tried
to move to /var but really symlinking /etc to /var/etc happens
more often than not...)
Standards bureaucracies like the Linux Foundation (which consumed
the Free Standards Group in its' ever-growing accretion disk
years ago) happily document and add to this sort of complexity
without ever trying to understand why it was there in the first
place. 'Ken and Dennis leaked their OS into the equivalent of
home because an RK05 disk pack on the PDP-11 was too small" goes
whoosh over their heads.
I'm pretty sure the busybox install just puts binaries wherever
other versions of those binaries have historically gone.
There's no actual REASON for any of it anymore. Personally, I
symlink /bin /sbin and /lib to their /usr equivalents on systems
I put together. Embedded guys try to understand and simplify...
GPLv3: as worthy a successor as The Phantom Menace, as
timely as Duke Nukem Forever, and as welcome as New Coke.
More information about the conspire