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pine - a Program for Internet News and Email
pine [ options ] [ address , address ]
pinef [ options ] [ address , address ]
Pine is a screen-oriented message-handling tool. In its
default configuration, Pine offers an intentionally limited
set of functions geared toward the novice user, but
it also has a growing list of optional «power-user» and
personal-preference features. pinef is a variant of Pine
that uses function keys rather than mnemonic single-letter
commands. Pine's basic feature set includes:
View, Save, Export, Delete, Print, Reply and Forward
Compose messages in a simple editor (Pico) with
word-wrap and a spelling checker. Messages may be
postponed for later completion.
Full-screen selection and management of message
Address book to keep a list of long or frequentlyused
addresses. Personal distribution lists may be
defined. Addresses may be taken into the address
book from incoming mail without retyping them.
New mail checking and notification occurs automatically
every 2.5 minutes and after certain commands,
e.g. refresh-screen (Ctrl-L).
On-line, context-sensitive help screens.
Pine supports MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions),
an Internet Standard for representing multipart
and multimedia data in email. Pine allows you to save
MIME objects to files, and in some cases, can also initiate
the correct program for viewing the object. It uses
the system's mailcap configuration file to determine what
program can process a particular MIME object type. Pine's
message composer does not have integral multimedia capability,
but any type of data file --including multimedia-can
be attached to a text message and sent using MIME's
encoding rules. This allows any group of individuals with
MIME-capable mail software (e.g. Pine, PC-Pine, or many
other programs) to exchange formatted documents, spreadsheets,
image files, etc, via Internet email.
Pine uses the c-client messaging API to access local and
remote mail folders. This library provides a variety of
low-level message-handling functions, including drivers
for a variety of different mail file formats, as well as
routines to access remote mail and news servers, using
IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) and NNTP (Network
News Transport Protocol). Outgoing mail is usually
handed-off to the Unix sendmail, program but it can
optionally be posted directly via SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer
The command line options/arguments are:
- Send mail to address. This will cause
Pine to go directly into the message
- Special anonymous mode for UWIN*
- -d debug-level
- Output diagnostic info at debug-level
(0-9) to the current .pine-debug[1-4]
file. A value of 0 turns debugging
off and suppresses the .pine-debug
- -f folder
- Open folder (in default mail dir)
instead of INBOX.
- -F file
- Open named text file and view with
- Help: list valid command-line options.
- Start up in the FOLDER INDEX screen.
- -I keystrokes
- Initial (comma separated list of)
keystrokes which Pine should execute
- Use function keys for commands. This
is the same as running the command
- Expand all collections in FOLDER LIST
- -n number
- Start up with current message-number
set to number.
- Special mode for UWIN*
- Open first folder read-only.
- -p config-file
- Use config-file as the personal
configuration file instead of the
- -P config-file
- Use config-file as the configuration
file instead of default system-wide
configuration file pine.conf.
- Use restricted/demo mode. Pine will
only send mail to itself and functions
like save and export are restricted.
- Enable ^Z and SIGTSTP so pine may be
- Produce a sample/fresh copy of the
system-wide configuration file,
pine.conf, on the standard output.
This is distinct from the per-user
- -create_lu addrbook sort-order
Creates auxiliarly index (look-up)
file for addrbook and sorts addrbook
in sort-order, which may be dont-sort,
nickname, fullname, nickname-with_lists-last,
Useful when creating global or
shared address books.
- -pinerc file
- Output fresh pinerc configuration to
- -sort order
- Sort the FOLDER INDEX display in one
of the following orders: arrival, sub_ject,
from, date, size, orderedsubj or
reverse. Arrival order is the default.
The OrderedSubj choice simulates a
threaded sort. Any sort may be
reversed by adding /reverse to it.
Reverse by itself is the same as
- Assign value to the config option
option e.g. -signature-file=sig1 or
(Note: feature-list values are additive)
* UWIN = University of Washington Information Navigator
There are several levels of Pine configuration. Configuration
values at a given level over-ride corresponding
values at lower levels. In order of increasing
o built-in defaults.
o system-wide pine.conf file.
o personal .pinerc file (may be set via built-in
o command-line options.
o system-wide pine.conf.fixed file.
There is one exception to the rule that configuration values
are replaced by the value of the same option in a
higher-precedence file: the feature-list variable has values
that are additive, but can be negated by prepending
«no-» in front of an individual feature name. Unix Pine
also uses the following environment variables:
- (determines if Pine can display IMAGE
- (if not set, default is /bin/sh )
- (semicolon delimited list of path names to
- Default folder for incoming
- Default directory for mail
- Default address book file.
- Default address book index
- Diagnostic log for debugging.
- Personal pine config file.
- News subscription/state file.
- Default signature file.
- Personal mail capabilities
- System-wide mail capabilities
- Local pointer to system administrator.
/usr/local/lib/pine.conf System-wide configuration
/usr/local/lib/pine.conf.fixed Non-overridable configuration
/tmp/.\usr\spool\mail\xxxx Per-folder mailbox lock files.
- Message which was interrupted.
- For postponed messages.
- Outgoing message archive
- Default destination for Saving
Source distribution: ftp://ftp.cac.washington.edu/pine/pine.tar.Z
Pine Technical Notes, included in the source distribution.
C-Client messaging API library, included in the source
The University of Washington Pine development team (part of the UW Office
of Computing & Communications) includes:
- Project Leader:
- Mike Seibel.
- Principal authors:
- Mike Seibel, Steve Hubert, Laurence Lundblade.
C-Client library & IMAPd: Mark Crispin.
Pico, the PIne COmposer: Mike Seibel.
Bug triage, user support: David Miller.
- Port integration:
- David Miller.
- Sheryl Erez, Kathryn Sharpe.
- PC-Pine for DOS:
- Mike Seibel.
- PC-Pine for Windows:
- Tom Unger.
- Project oversight:
- Terry Gray.
- Principal Patrons:
- Ron Johnson, Mike Bryant.
- Additional support:
- Initial Pine code base:
- Elm, by Dave Taylor & USENET Community Trust.
- Initial Pico code base:
- MicroEmacs 3.6, by Dave G. Conroy.
- User Interface design:
- Inspired by UCLA's «Ben» mailer for MVS.
Suggestions/fixes/ports: Folks from all over!
Copyright 1989-1994 by the University of Washington.
Pine and Pico are trademarks of the University of Washington.
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